An Iconic Medieval and Crusader Type
CRUSADERS, Antioch. Bohémond III. 1163-1201. BI Denier (Average 18mm; 0.92 g). Antioch mint. Struck circa 1163-1188. + BOAИVИDVS, bust left, wearing Norman helmet decorated with cross pattée and chainmail coif; crescent to left, star to right / + ANTIOCHIA, cross pattée; crescent in second quarter. Cf. Metcalf, Crusades 381-2 (for type); cf. CCS 65 (same). Good VF or better. Well struck for issue. An iconic medieval and Crusader type. Special offer – you will receive one (1) example of our choice.
1163-1201. BI Denier ( average 18mm ; 0.92 thousand ). Antioch mint. Struck circa 1163-1188. + BOAИVИDVS, raid left, wearing Norman helmet decorated with cross pattée and chainmail hairdo ; crescent to left, star to right / + ANTIOCHIA, cross pattée ; crescent in second base quarter. Cf. Metcalf,381-2 ( for type ) ; cf. CCS 65 ( lapp ). well VF or better. Well struck for consequence. An iconic medieval and Crusader type.
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In 1095, Pope Urban III issued a call for knights throughout Christendom to attack the brawny Islamic Caliphate and domesticate Jerusalem, launching the earned run average of the Crusades. Over the following four centuries, bang-up armies of Islam and Christianity would engage in a titanic contend for see of huge stretches of the Mediterranean global, including the Holy Land, Egypt, and Spain. While these baneful cultural clashes caused untold suffering and destruction, they besides helped to expand the horizons of the once cloistered chivalric world, created new heroes and mythologies, and ultimately helped to forge the national identities we placid live with nowadays.
Following the First Crusade ( 1096-1099 ), the chivalric armies of the Latin west formed four autonomous Crusader States on the Levantine lands seized from the Islamic Caliphate : The Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Counties of Edessa and Tripoli, and the Principality of Antioch. At their twelfth century flower, these kingdoms were an exotic blend of East and West, Christian and Muslim, and a host of ethnicities, creating a foam linguist culture unlike anything seen before or since. This worldly concern disappeared constantly with the fall of Acre to the reconquering Mamluk armies in 1291.
Naturally the Crusader Kingdoms struck their own neologism, patterned on the Medieval Latin ash grey denier, but with designs reflecting the conflicts and concerns of the region. The deniers of Bohémond III, rule of the Principality of Antioch, are among the most iconic. The obverse depicts the break of a contemporary Crusader knight, wearing the distinctive Norman-style chain mail hairdo and helmet with nasal. The revoke bears the hybrid pattée with equidistant, aflare arms, within a circle, a theme frequently found in Crusader architecture. No medieval or Crusader collection is complete without an model of this attractive character.
The Principality of Antioch was ruled by an Italo-Norman dynasty descended from the Norman conquerors of Sicily. Among these rulers, Bohémond III ( circa 1148-1201 ), surnamed ‘ the Child ’ or the ‘ Stammerer ’, succeeded his church father as Prince while even a child. In 1163, when he attained his majority, Bohémond exiled his mother, who until then had acted as regent.
Among the Crusader elite his career was typically convoluted, one might even say “ Byzantine ” – indeed Byzantium played a major role in his stewardship of Antioch. In 1164, Bohémond waged an ill-advised war on the Seljuq governor of Syria, Nur ad-Din, leading to his capture and that of the Crusader leaders of Tripoli and Edessa. The Byzantines negotiated his publish, after which Bohémond travelled to Constantinople and paid court to the emperor Manuel I Comnenus. Bohémond remained a Byzantine vassal until Manuel ’ s death in 1180 ; once free of this he catapulted himself into a number of inner disputes among the Crusader kingdoms and the allied Kingdom of Cilician Armenia. These squabbles preoccupied the Crusaders and wasted their energies while the Muslims found a supporter in one of the capital military geniuses of the long time, al-Nasir I Salah al-Din Yusuf, well known as Saladin. Following Saladin ’ s smashing victory over the Kingdom of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin in 1187, all the Crusader states were put on the defensive. however, through astute statesmanship and the timely arrival of the Third Crusade in 1189 to distract Saladin, Bohémond managed to maintain Antioch ’ s independence. Bohémond rule lasted until his death in 1201, while the Principality of Antioch ultimately fell to Islam in 1268.
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